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The device for acoustic and (or) tactile visualization of optical objects for blind or blind and deaf people.
There are approximately two million blind and 11 million visually impaired people in the United States. Additionally, the World Health Organization estimates there are 45 million people that are blind throughout the world.
Far much is made of the technologyes to help blind people do the things others do with sight. This is unfortunate because it gives employers, not to mention the general public, the false impression that blind is NEEDING these products for everything. This is, of course, not true. It's not that we dislike technology but technology that won't solve the real problems of blindness - is not need, many people still have not clear knowledge about blindness and the abilities of the blind. It is represented, that the basic participation in creation of these technologies should accept blind, but they are just deprived this opportunity, by virtue of the appropriate physical inability.
Using sight, technologies of prosthetics of eyes.
Blind people from birth, which operative way possible to return sight, long time study to see. Very much late begun to see clearly, significant successes can not reach some. Quite often, despite of known positive results, they ceased to use sight and came back to former life, in the world of touch.
Sight should study. Begun to see clearly people, already having learned to learn the basic subjects, at the slightest change of a situation are confused.
Usually the destiny late begun to see clearly people is tragic. The majority of them, eventually, refuses to use sight and runs into the strongest depression though before restoration of sight they were cheerful enough people.
For a way of creation of an artificial eye huge difficulties stand. On the person it is impossible to experiment, and an animal you will not ask, whether it and sees what exactly. Physicians do not have confidence, that constant stimulation of a brain appears harmless to the person, anybody their surgeons for a long time will not dare to leave a thick bunch of electrodes in a brain of the patient
The offered device is free from lacks of prosthetics and is focused on use of bodies and in part - ways of perception, habitual for blind all categories. It excludes occurrence, at the user, the stressful phenomena. It proves to be true objectively (on encephalogramms) . Applicability of the device for the decision of the simplified problems, for example: work with black-and-white graphics (the usual text, figure) - expands availability of technologies. For example: for the users not capable as it is described above to master sight in full. It enables for anyone blind practically to present, that he will receive, having learned using the device even in the limited volume.
The principle of action - the visual message as a polyvoice-frequency sound signal which corresponds to full video signal, is perceived from the device by hearing of the person and transferred in a brain where sound signals through associative acoustical zones of a bark of a brain irritate nonspecific visual receptors and give out the visual image as " an internal image " Coordinates of optical objects, are determined by tactile perception of corners of stereobase and an optical axis of the device.
Development of the device are based on the basic researches which have been carried out by a number of the academic institutes and patented. Originality consists in essential difference of a method - blind receives and analyzes visual messages directly and according to ophthalmologic standards for usual sight, becoming, in the general definition - one who can see. Known means (guides, locators, navigating systems, video of means with the subsequent computer processing etc. ) inform blind only the interpretation of visual messages. This interpretation can not apply for completeness of transfer. It is limited to opportunities of means - mediators, blind - remains blind.
The device does not limit volume and quality of tests in public, moreover, enables to deal with problems of sight blind himself. A way of training blind, visually impaired and blind and deaf people to perception of visual messages from an environment) . It is represented, that the project "Sight without eyes" within the framework of which this way - the first systematized approach to the decision of problems of perception of visual messages was developed by blind people. Technologies of the project - most correspond (at present) to such approach.
Technical part - are made under the standard engineering specifications by two various workshops. The comparative analysis of samples of devices has shown their identity in characteristics, reproducibility and repeatability.
Methodical part, monitoring and organizational actions, are developed on the basis of fundamental studies of materials of patents and the preliminary expert researches including detailed studying of devices and the user methodology by Expert Advice of Society Blind and trial tests on group of blind children.
In the concept of tests sight is determined as ability to perceive and interpret visual messages according to the standard criteria.
Results of tests: the Way removes the restrictions connected to application of means, interpreting visual messages or demanding any surgical intervention in an organism of the user, directly enables blind to perceive the visual information, doing him (in the general definition) - one who can see, whereas means - intermediaries only help him to live, remaining blind.
From 59 examinees, 57 - children from 9 up to 18 years, pupils with 4-th on 11-th class, 2 - blind teachers. From them completely blind from birth - 29, with the acquired blindness - 11, 19 - with residual sight from about, 1 up to 0,3 %, from them 10 - with a congenital pathology of sight.
Past it is successful tests in ophthalmologic specifications for "unit" of usual sight - 27, thus the first test (visual acuity) have successfully passed 27, the second (perception of semitones) - 45. Abilities to the analysis of a three-dimensional stage are marked at 39.
Positively perceive the device and its applicability to the decision of problems of sight - 45. Negatively-9, were not defined - 5.
Would like to be trained in using-36. Is not present - 7. were not defined - 16.
Appreciable distinctions in abilities under the anamnesis, age, the educational qualification - it is not revealed.
Negative, marked subjectively or medical monitoring of influences of devices on examinees it is not marked.
The user characteristics of the device.
Accommodation - from 10 cm up to "infinity".
Resolution - 1 angular minute /deviation of frequency not less than 1 note at contrast 100, light exposure 50 lux / .
Serviceability at light exposure 0,2 lux - on contrast 100 deviation of frequency not less than 1 note.
The best light exposure - 50 lux.
Deviation of frequency at supervision 8 a gradations intensified scale from distance 25 cm and light exposure 50 lux - note/gradation.
A feed (meal) -2 elements Lr6 (AA) for 6 months.
Current of consumption - no more than 2 mA.
Dimensions - the cylinder in lenght 150, diameter 30 mm.
Weight - no more than 100 gramme.
The cost prise - from $50.