HIV, HCV, HBsAg ELISA Blood Donor Screening test
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type (HIV-1) has been isolated from patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC) . HIV-1 was thought to be the sole causive agent of these syndromes until 1986, when a second type of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-2) was isolated and also reported to cause AIDS. Since the initial discovery, more than 600 cases of HIV-2 infection have been documented worldwide, with over 40 cases of AIDS related to HIV-2.
Both viruses have the same morphology and lymphotropism, and the modes of transmission appear to be identical. In addition, HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomes exhibit about 60% homology in conserved genes such as gag and pol. Serologic studies have also shown that the core proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 display frequent cross-reactivity whereas the envelope proteins are more type-specific.
Despite this immunologic cross-reactivity, detection of antibodies to HIV-2 with any of the licensed HIV-1 enzyme immunoassays is highly variable. This HIV-1/HIV-2 EIA was developed to detect antibodies to HIV-1 and /or HIV-2, for blood screening and diagnostic purposes.
Any specimen that reacts in an initial test with the HIV-1/HIV-2 EIA must be retested in duplicate with the other companys HIV-1/HIV-2 EIA. Repeatably reactive specimens may contain antibodies to either HIV-1 or HIV-2. Therefore, additional, more specific or supplemental tests for antibodies to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 such as immunoblot, immunofluorescence, radioimmuno-precipitation must be performed to verify presence of antibodies to HIV.