L â€“Glutamine, Â L-Arginine, Amino Acid
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arginine amino acid
Synonyms: l-(+) -glutamic acid-5-amide, 2-aminoglutaramic acid, levoglutamide, (S) -(+) -glutamine
Molecular formula: C5H10N2O3
CAS No: 56-85-9
EINECS No: 200-292-1
What is L- Glutamine?L-Glutamine is considered by most athletes to be an essential part of their nutritional program. L-Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid which comprises 61% of the free intracellular amino acid pool (most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue) , while BCAA's comprise 8.4% of the pool.
The most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream, L-glutamine fulfills a number of biochemical needs. It operates as a nitrogen shuttle, taking up excess ammonia and forming urea. It can contribute to the production of other amino acids, glucose, nucleotides, protein, and glutathione. L-Glutamine is primarily formed and stored in skeletal muscle and lungs, and is the principal metabolic fuel for small intestine enterocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. Supplemental use of glutamine, either in oral, enteral, or parenteral form, increases intestinal villous height, stimulates gut mucosal cellular proliferation, and maintains mucosal integrity. It also prevents intestinal hyperpermeability and bacterial translocation, which may be involved in sepsis and the development of multiple organ failure. L-glutamine use has been found to be of great importance in the treatment of trauma and surgery patients, and has been shown to decrease the incidence of infection in these patients. Cancer patients often develop muscle glutamine depletion, due to uptake by tumors and chronic protein catabolism. Glutamine may be helpful in offsetting this depletion; however, it may also stimulate the growth of some tumors. The use of L-glutamine with cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy seems to prevent gut and oral toxic side-effects, and may even increase the effectiveness of some chemotherapy drugs.
L-Glutamine is considered a non-essential amino acid. Under certain pathological circumstances the body's tissues need more glutamine than the overall amount supplied by diet and de novo synthesis. During catabolic stress, for instance, intracellular glutamine levels can drop more than 50 percent, and plasma concentration falls 30 percent. It is under these circumstances that supplemental L-glutamine becomes necessary.
Skeletal muscle contains the greatest intracellular concentration of L-glutamine, comprising up to 60 percent of total body glutamine stores, and is considered the primary storage depot of L-glutamine, and thus the primary exporter of L-glutamine to other tissues. In times of metabolic stress, L-glutamine is released into circulation, where it is transported to the tissue in need. Intracellular skeletal muscle L-glutamine concentration is affected by various insults, including injury, sepsis, prolonged stress, starvation, and the use of glucocorticoids. Besides skeletal muscle, the lungs are the next largest producer of L-glutamine.