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Hundreds of chemical compounds have been identified from propolis. The main chemical classes present in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics, and various aromatic compounds. Propolis also contains some volatile oils, terpenes, and beeswax, but these compounds are not believed to contribute as significantly to the chemical properties and effects of propolis.
Flavonoids are well-known plant compounds that have antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other properties of propolis include acting as a local anesthetic, reducing spasms, healing gastric ulcers, and strengthening capillaries.