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SCADA refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data. You can use SCADA to manage any kind of equipment like Electric power generation, transmission and distribution , Water and sewage , Buildings, facilities and environments , Manufacturing , Mass transit , Traffic signals SCADA is not a specific technology, but a type of application. SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition any application that gets data about a system in order to control that system is a SCADA application.
A SCADAapplication has two elements:
1. Theprocess/system/machineryyou want to monitor a control this can be a powerplant, a water system, anetwork, a system of traffic lights, or anything else.
2. Anetwork ofintelligent devices that interfaces with the first system throughsensors andcontrol outputs. This network, which is the SCADA system, gives youthe abilityto measure and control specific elements of the first system.
A SCADA system performs four functions:
1. Data acquisition 2-Networked data communication 3- Data presentation 4-control
These functions are performed by four kinds ofSCADA components:
1. Sensors and control relays that directly interface withthe managed system.
2. Remote telemetry units(RTUs) . These are small computerizedunits deployed in the field at specific sites and locations. RTUs serve aslocal collection points for gathering reports from sensors and deliveringcommands to control relays.
3. SCADAmaster units. These are largercomputer consoles that serve as the central processor for the SCADA system. Master units provide a human interface to the system and automatically regulatethe managed system in response to sensor inputs.
4. The communications network thatconnects the SCADA master unit to the RTUs in the field.