Zingeber officinailis extract
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Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Dry Extract.
English name: Ginger
Part used: Rhizome
Traditional uses 1: It is used for abdominal pain, anorexia, arthritis, atonic dyspepsia, bleeding, cancer, chest congestion, chicken pox, cholera, chronic bronchitis, cold extremities, colic, colitis, common cold, cough, cystic fibrosis, diarrhoea, difficulty in breathing, dropsy, fever, flatulence, indigestion, disorders of gallbladder, hyperacidity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, indigestion, morning sickness, nausea, rheumatism, sore throat, throat ache, stomach ache and vomiting. Ginger form an important constituent of many Ayurvedic formulations.
Phytochemistry2,3: The major nonvolatile pungent principles of Zingiber officinale are a series of phenolic compounds with side chains of varying length collectively known as "gingerols". Among the gingerols 6-gingerol is major while 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and their corresponding anhydro derivatives known as "shogaols" are minor constituents. Other pungent principles of the rhizomes are paradols, gingerdiols, gingerdiacetates, gingerdiones, 6-gingersulfonic acid, gingerenones etc. The rhizome also contains volatile oil with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons viz. -zingiberene, -sesquiphellandrene and ar-curcumene as major constituents; diterpenes and gingerglycolipids A, B and C.
Pharmacology: Zingiber officinale has been evaluated for various pharmacological activities. Zingiber officinale is found to have, anti-nausea4, anti-emetic5 and anti-ulcer5,6 properties. Zingiber officinale is been reported to have, anti-inflammatory5,7,8, anti-arthritic8 activity. In addition it is reported to have hepatoprotective9, hypoglycemic10, hypolipidemic11,12 and cardiotonic13 effect.
Marker constituents: Volatile oils, gingerols, shogaols.
Main use(s)2: Digestive acid, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory.
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3. Anonymous. (1992) British Herbal Compendium. Published by The British Herbal Medicine Association (Bournemouth) . 1: 112-114.
4. Bone K. (1997) Br. J. Phytotherapy. 4(3) : 110-120.
5. Sharma SS, Kochupillai V, Gupta SK, Seth SD, Gupta YK. (1997) J. Ethnopharmacol. 57: 93-96.
6. Yamahara J, Mochizuki M, Rong HQ, Matsuda H, Fujimura H, (1988) J. Ethnopharmacol. 23: 299-304.
7. Jana U, Chattopadhyay RN, Shaw BP. (1999) Indian J. Pharmacol. 31: 232-233.
8. Sharma JN, Srivastava KC, Gan EK. (1994) Pharmacology. 49: 314-318.
9. Hikino H, Kiso Y, Kato N. (1985) J. Ethnopharmacol. 14: 31-39.
10. Sharma M, Shukla S. (1977) Jour. Res. Ind. Med. Yog & Homeo. 12(2) : 127-130.
11. Sharma I, Gusain D, Dixit VP. (1996) Phytother. Res. 10: 517-518.
12. Bhandari U, Sharma JN, Zafar R. (1998) J. Ethnopharmacol. 61: 167-171.
13. Shoji N, Iwasa A, Takemoto T, Ishida Y, Ohizumi Y. (1982) J. Pharm. sci. 71(10) : 1174-1175.