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It is a white or pale yellow crystal powder extracted from dry capsicum.
Its main components are capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and other alkaloids, such as nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin etc.
Its molecular formula: C18H27O3N;
Physics and chemistry :It is easily soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether and other organic solvents, and alkaline solution yet. The pure capsaicin is crystal with flake shape and easily separated in diethyl ether. Its melting point is near 61~66C. At high temperature it produces irritating gas. It was stable to light and heat.
Stored at the dryness, preventing sunlight, and sealed.
Specification of quality: USP 25
2. The use of the capsaicin
The capsicum frutescens is used as condiment and pharmaceutical for hundreds years. Nearly 1/4 population of the world often uses it for food. China is the one of the countries which earliest used the capsicum frutescens as pharmaceutical, traditional Chinese science uses the capsicum frutescens for curing the stomach trouble, rheumatism and other disease. The capsicum frutescens is planted all over the world and it is often referred to as capsicum. It's name is different with the different producing area, the acrimonious and strongly simulating capsicum produced in Africa, India and China is called chillies, the big capsicum with low peppery taste produced in Spain, Hungry is called paparika, the capsicum with peppery taste between the two sorts of capsicum above mentioned is called red pepper. In recent years the capsicum is widely used for pharmaceutical, light-chemical and food industry, it has very high medical value and economic value.
2.1 The effect of capsaicin in clinical medicine
The capsaicin with high concentration is used for pharmaceutical industry, it has effect of easing pain, diminishing inflammation, disinfecting and curing the stomach disease and leukemia. The ointment made from capsaicin is particularly effective against chronic rheumarthritis, band matrix, injuries from falls and other neuralgia; in the field of health care it has the function of reducing weight and unblocking blood vessel; when it is used together with the morphina the time of easing pain is lengthened and the addiction from morphina is weakened. At the beginning of nineties of last century had produced and sold the compound capsule, home remedy or compound ointment made from capsaicin abroad, these pharmaceuticals are widely used for curing: arthritis, the pain of muscle, backache, sprain caused by motion and neuralgia left after herpes zoster etc.
2.2 The other use of capsaicin
The large number of fundamental experiments on the capsaicin have been doing continuously, the study indicates that the capsaicin can open the channel of calcium ion and sodium ion on the cell membrane, and block the small intestine to absorb thiamine, it is may be used for the curing of hyperfunction of trachea function caused by the protein of pork fat and restrain the precipitation of fat in the body of big rat etc. this shows that the capsaicin has great potential used for pharmaceutical. The pharmaceutical of capsaicin kind widely used home and abroad is mainly divided into following five sorts:
1) The pharmaceutical used for giving up the drugs and strongly easing pain the american scientists found though study, the needle etching made from capsaicin of high purity is a new pharmaceutical used for giving up the drugs, it has strong effect of giving up almost to all drugs addiction, the needle etching used for easing pain made from capsaicin has strong effect to the great pain caused by severe wound and terminal cancer.
2) Be used for reducing weight.
3) Be used as pharmaceuticals to repel the destructive insect, mouse and hare in agriculture; it is yet used as additive of anti-fouling paint in shipping, coating to prevent mouse in the cable and optical cable, paint to prevent termite in the wood of building.