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Stand-alone PV Power System (off-grid)
1. PV Array: A number of PV panels connected in series and/or in parallel giving a DC output out of the incident irradiance. Orientation and tilt of these panels are important design parameters, as well as shading from surrounding obstructions.
2. PV controller: control battery bank charge and discharge reasonable and safety.
3. Inverter: A power converter that inverts the DC power from the panels into AC power.
4. Battery bank: can be a single battery or multiple batteries connected together to create essentially one large battery of the required voltage and amp-hour capacity.
5. Loads: Stands for the network connected appliances in the building that are fed from the inverter, or, alternatively, from the grid